Sentence Structure: Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentence
A simple sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought (Oshima, 2007:11).
a) Jojo and Aruro play football every afternoon.
b) Alicia goes to the library and studies every day
c) There was no reason for his action.
d) Indonesian government through its national curriculum obligates the students from junior high school to university to learn English
A compound sentence is a sentence that contains at least two simple sentences joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (Oshima, 2007:30).
The coordinators are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
a) Hendro played football, so Zahna went shopping.
b) They were poor, but they were happy.
c) He could choose a big box, or he could choose a small one.
d) He dropped a rice ball, and it rolled into a hole.
e) I was scared, yet I was also curious about the old lady.
Yet has same meaning as but; use yet when the second part of the sentence says something unexpected or surprising.
f) It is not easy to get there, for you have to hike down a long trail.
For has same meaning as because; use for to introduce a reason or cause.
g) The book isn’t very long, nor is it difficult to read.
use nor to join two negative sentences.
Review: Simple sentence or compound sentence?
1. a) Yesterday went shopping, but we didn’t buy anything.
2. b) Yesterday went shopping but didn’t buy anything.
3. a) We ate lunch, and then we went home.
4. b) We ate lunch and then went home.
Comma rule (Oshima, 2007:31)
A complex sentence is a combination of one independent clause and at least one (or more) dependent clause (Oshima, 2007:100).
A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, etc or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
a) When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the last page.
b) The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
c) The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
d) Hendrie who studies English at LKP VIP comes late. [Hendrie studies English at LKP VIP. Hendrie comes late.]
who studies English at LKP VIP = adjective clause
who = relative pronoun