Morphosyntax Meeting 11 Function Words
Morphosyntax Meeting 11 Function Words
Adposition = Preposition, Postposition, and Circumpositions
Postpositions : A word with this grammatical function come after the complement.
The only common postposition in English is the word ago.
e.g: John received a very generous offer a few minutes ago
Circumpositions consist of two parts that appear on both sides of the complement.
Circumposition occurs when a prepositional phrase contains two prepositions, one at the beginning of the phrase and one at the end.
Some examples : from now on, in place of, with a mind to
Prepositions : A word that shows the relationship between a noun and other words in a sentence.
Prepositions convey the following relationships: agency (by); comparison (like, as . . . as); direction (to, toward, through); place (at, by, on); possession (of); purpose (for); source (from, out of); and time (at, before, on).
Conjunction is to link words, phrases, or clauses.
Co-ordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) is to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses.
He spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.
They have studied hard, but it’s still difficult for them to understand English
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).
After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or noun phrase.
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing.
Subjective Personal Pronouns
is acting as the subject of the sentence.
They are “I,” “you,” “she,” “he,” “it,” “we,” “you,” “they.”
Objective Personal Pronouns
is acting as an object of a verb.
They are: “me,” “you,” “her,” “him,” “it,” “us,” “you,” and “them.”
Possessive Personal Pronouns
is acting as a marker of possession.
They are “mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “its,” “ours,” and “theirs.”
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun.
They are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” ”
This must not continue.
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. They are which, who, whom, what, to whom.
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. They are “who,” “whom,” “that,” and “which.
Hendrie studies english at LKP VIP.
Hendrie always comes late.
Hendrie who studies English at LKP VIP always comes late
An indefinite pronoun is referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.
The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.
Reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the clause or sentence.
They are “myself,” “yourself,” “herself,” “himself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “yourselves,” and “themselves.”
After the party, I asked myself why I had invited everyone in my campus.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent.
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
A word or a group of words that introduces a noun.
• The girl is a student.
• I’ve lost my keys.
• Some folks get all the luck.
• I only had two drinks.
• I’ll take that one.
Determiners, in English, form a closed class of words that include:
• Articles: a, an, the
• Cardinal numbers: zero, one, two, fifty, infinite, etc.
• Demonstratives: this, that, these, those, which
• Quantifiers: all, few, many, several, some, every, each, any, no, etc.
Interjection is a short utterance that usually expresses emotion and is capable of standing alone.
An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. The table below shows some interjections with examples.
dear “Oh dear! Does it hurt?”
“Dear me! That’s a surprise!”
hello “Hello John. How are you today?”
“Hello! My car’s gone!”
hey “Hey! look at that!”
“Hey! What a good idea!”
hi “Hi! What’s new?”
hmm “Hmm. I’m not so sure.”
ouch “Ouch! That hurts!”
uh “Uh…I don’t know the answer to that.”
um “85 divided by 5 is…um…17.”
well “Well I never!”
“Well, what did he say?”