Morphosyntax Meeting 11 Content Words
Morphosyntax Meeting 11 Content Words
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, or idea.
Proper nouns and common nouns
A proper noun is a noun representing unique entities (such as London, Jupiter, Jhony). Common nouns describe a class of entities (such as city, planet, person or car).
Agent nouns take the form of a subject performing an action (verb).
Eg: maker (from to make), teacher (from to teach), so on.
Countable and uncountable nouns
1. Count nouns can take a plural, can combine with numerals or quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article (a or an).
Examples: chair, nose, and car.
2. Non-count nouns can’t take plural or combine with number words or quantifiers. Examples: water, hair, and furniture.
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity.
Examples: committee, herd, and school (of fish).
Concrete nouns and abstract nouns
1. Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can be observed by the senses. For instance, chair, apple.
2. Abstract nouns refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts, such as: justice.
A verb is a word that conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (exist, stand).
English agreement only in the third person singular, present tense verbs, which is marked by adding “-s” (I walk, he walks) or “-es” (he fishes).
Tense, aspect, and modality
1) Tense is the use of verbs to convey whether the action or state is before, simultaneous with, or after some reference point. The reference point could be the time of utterance: a past, present, or future time.
2) Aspect expresses how the action or state occurs through time. examples:
• perfective aspect, in which the action is viewed in its entirety though completion (as in “I saw the car”)
• imperfective aspect, in which the action is viewed as ongoing, e.g: I’ve been studying english for two years.
• habitual aspect, in which the action occurs repeatedly (as in “I used to go there every day”).
• stative aspect, in which the situation is a fixed state (as in “I know French”).
• progressive aspect, in which the situation continuously evolves (as in “I am running”)
• perfect, which combines elements of both aspect and tense, and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in “I have studied well”)
3) Modality expresses the speaker’s attitude toward the action or state given by the verb, especially with regard to :
– degree of necessity, obligation, or permission (“You must go”, “You should go”, “You may go”).
– determination or willingness (“I will do this”).
– degree of probability (“It may be raining”, “It might be raining”).
– ability (“I can speak French”).
An adjective modifies a noun/pronoun by describing or quantifying words.
e.g: I teach many clever students.
The occurrence of an adjective can be classified into 1 of 4 kinds of uses:
1. Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify.
e.g: happy people
2. Predicative adjectives are linked to the noun or pronoun they modify.
e.g: They are happy.
3. Absolute adjectives typically modify either the subject of a sentence or whatever noun or pronoun they are closest to.
e.g: happy is an absolute adjective in “The boy, happy with his lollipop, did not look where he was going.”
4. Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. This happens if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind.
He preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy.
The adjective order in English is:
1. quantity or number
2. quality or opinion
7. proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)
8. purpose or qualifier
e.g: I live at a nice little old white brick house
a kind young white banjaresse boyfriend.
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb. An adverb answers questions such as “how,” “when,” “where,” “how much”.
Adverbs in English
a) Adverbs are words like slowly, yesterday, now, soon and suddenly. It provides information about the manner, place, time, frequency.
b) Adverbs of manner (answering the question how?) are often formed by adding -ly to adjectives.
For example: greatly, beautifully.
There are also adverbs that do not end with -ly, such as hard, well, fast
c) Adverbs also take comparisons with as ….. as and less. Equative adverbs are used to describe the similarities between two objects or people.