Sociolinguistics Meeting 11
Sociolinguistics Meeting 11
Ethnografy of Speaking
The study of speech community is strongly related to the concept of Hymes’ SPEAKING formula (in Wardaugh:2006). All of them are explained as follows:
a. Situation (S)
Situation refers to the setting and scene. Setting includes the time and place. The concrete physical circumstances which speech takes place such as classroom or courtroom. Scene refers to an abstract physiological setting, or a cultural definition of an occasion, such as a committee meeting and a graduation ceremony.
b. Participants (P)
The participants include various combinations of a speaker-listener, an addresser-addressee, or a sender-receiver. They generally fill certain social specified roles. For instance, a teacher teaches a lesson to his students. Here, the participants are the teacher and the students. The teacher is the addressor who delivers the lesson and the students are the addressees who receive the lesson.
c. Ends (E)
Ends refer to the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes of an exchange as well as to the personal goals that participants seek to accomplish on particular occasions. Outcomes are the purpose of the event from a cultural point of view while goals are the purpose of the individual participants. For instance, a trial in a courtroom has a recognizable social end in view, but the various participants, such as a judge, a jury, a prosecution, a defense, an accused, and a witness have different personal goals.
d. Act Sequences (A)
Act sequences refer to the actual form and content of what is said, how they used, and the relationship of what is said to the actual topic at hand. Speakers should know how to formulate appropriate speech in their culture values and how to recognize what is being talked about. Public lecturers, casual conversations, a trial, and cocktail party are different forms of speaking, with each go different kind of language and things talked about.
e. Key (K)
Key refers to the tone, manner, or spirit in which a particular message is conveyed, whether it is light-hearted, serious, mocking, sarcastic, and so on. The key may also be marked non-verbally by certain kinds of behavior, gesture, or posture.
1). Tone : It is the general spirit of the scene, such as angry, afraid.
2). Manner : It refers to the participants’ way of behaving toward others, whether it is polite, impolite, intimate, distant, formal, informal, serious, etc.
3). Feeling : It refers to emotions indicating happiness, anxiety, anger, shock, etc.
4). Atmosphere : It refers to the feeling that affects the mind in a place or condition, such as good, evil, etc.
5). Attitude : It refers to the participants’ ways of thinking and behaving toward a situation whether it is sympathetic, optimistic, pessimistic, etc.
f. Instrumentalities (I)
Instrumentalities refer to the choice of channel, such as oral or written and to the actual forms of speech employed. By channel, it simply means the way a message travels from one person to another. For example, the channel of a talk show on the radio is oral.
g. Norms (N)
Norms refers to the specific behaviors and properties that attach to speaking and also to how these may be viewed someone who does not share them. Norms includes norms of interaction and norms of interpretation. Norms of interactions are determined by the culture of the community, and generally, they are different in each community. Norms of interpretations implicate the belief system of a community. For instance, in Indonesia, it is considered rude to say ‘no’ without elaborating the reason whereas in some Western countries it is common just to say ‘no’ to refuse a request.
h. Genres (G)
Genre describes categories of an event such as joke, lecture, sermons, editorials, myths, etc.
Practice: Analyze Steve Jobs explains the rules for success video