Discourse Analysis Meeting 5 n 6
Discourse Analysis Meeting 5 n 6 : Cohesion (Unity) and Coherence
A well-written paragraph contains five elements: a topic sentence, supporting sentence, concluding sentence, unity, and coherence.
Cohesion (Unity) means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. There are two types of cohesion; Grammatical Cohesion and Lexical Cohesion.
a) Grammatical Cohesion refers to the grammatical relation between clauses. It involves four categories: reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction.
(1) Reference is the specific nature of the information that is signaled for retrieval. Reference is presented in pronominal such as he, him, his, I, me, my, that, this, etc.
Amrozi has steadfastly denied he was in Jalan Legian on October 12. He said he was at his brother’s home in Surakarta.
(2) Substitution is a replacement of one item by another. Halliday (1976) states that there are three types of substitution: nominal, verbal and clausal. Items used as nominal substitution are one, ones; same, whether verbal substitution uses do and clausal substitution uses so, not.
1. This orange is sweet. I want the other ones.
2. Nissa sang sweetly, and so did Paul.
3. Will Britney hold a concert in Wonogiri? It says so.
(3) Ellipsis is an elimination of grammatical part in order to achieve efficiency.
What is your name? Anissa.
The answer ‘Anissa’ is an ellipsis, from ‘My name is Anisa’.
(4) Conjunction is a cohesive item which connects the relation between. They are 2 Conjunctions; Coordinating Conjunction & Subordinators Conjunction.
• Coordinating Conjunction, is used in Compound Sentence (e.g: FANBOYS).
• Subordinators Conjunction, is used in Complex Sentence (e.g: while, before, since, after, until, When, whenever).
b) Lexical Cohesion refers to the lexical relation used in a text. In general, there are five categories of lexical cohesion; repetition, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy and pararellism.
1. Repetition is a word reduplication. It includes inflection and derivation.
Example : do – does – did – doing.
2. Synonymy is a similarity of meaning among words.
Example : leave – depart.
3. Antonymy is a set of lexical items which are contrastin meaning.
Example : leave – arrive.
4. Hyponymy is a relation which shows that some physical or social realities are members of a specific type.
Example : flower – rose
5. Pararellism is a pararell structure of word/clause.
Example : faster better
Coherence means that’s the parts of the paragraph should be logically connected and flow smoothly. It can be achieved by using (1) noun and pronoun consistenly, (2) transition signal, (3) logical order.
Transition signal, e.g: ; first, second, on the other hand, in contrary, to sum up, in addition, meanwhile, so on.