Metodologi Penelitian Tindakan Kelas
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH
3.1 Research Design
The research design in this study is classroom action research that focuses on a particular group of students in a certain classroom. McNiff (1992:1) states that action research encourages a teacher to be reflective of his own practice in order to enhance the quality of education for himself and his pupils. Car and Kemmis says (in McNiff:1992:2) that action research in the education field is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practices, and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out.
This study employed collaborative classroom action research, which was targeted to develop the teaching strategy in order to find out solutions to the problem of teaching speaking at Widya Gama University Samarinda. In conducting the research, researcher was assisted by a lecturer who taught speaking 3. He was involved from beginning that is preliminary study and the preparations of the research till the end that is the final test of students’ speaking proficiency. The researcher acted as a teacher who taught speaking by using improvisations technique and the collaborative researcher acted as the observer who observed the implementation of teaching speaking through improvisations technique.
The classroom action research in this study was done following Kemmis’ cycle process (in McNiff:1992:27). Each cycle covers four steps; (1) planning, (2) implementing, (3) Observing, and (4) Reflecting. In planning step, researcher planned the action to answer the teaching problem; preparing the strategy, designing a lesson plan, providing media, making assessment sheet, and determining criteria of success. In implementing step, researcher practiced the strategy. In observing step, researcher recorded and collected data any event or information connecting with the teaching learning process. Finally, in the reflecting step, researcher would evaluate the result of the implementation of the strategy and draw the conclusion whether the strategy was success or not by comparing to the criteria of success.
3.2 Research Setting and Subjects
The study was conducted at English Education Department of Widyagama Mahakam University of Samarinda. It is chosen as the setting of the study for the reason that it is where the researcher teaches and he intends to apply the strategy in improving the students’ speaking ability.
The subjects of the study were the third semester students in the academic year 2008/2009. The third semester students were selected since they had learned speaking sufficient in the previous semesters, and they were ready to have drama improvisation in their class.
3.3 Procedures of Study
The research was conducted by following a number of steps. The research included preliminary study prior to analyzing and identifying the problems, followed by planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting.
3.3.1 Preliminary Study
A preliminary study was done in order to get the information about the teaching strategies of speaking implemented by teachers. By conducting preliminary study, researcher collected the data about the implementation of English teaching in the classroom.
The researcher conducted the preliminary study on Friday, September 12 2008. The researcher administered a pre-test in this preliminary study. From the study, researcher also obtained more comprehensive data from the students and teachers about the problems of speaking faced by students.
In the study, the researcher interviewed the English lecturers. The questions addressed are: (1) what technique did you use in teaching speaking, (2) what do you think about students’ speaking ability of third semester?, and (3) what problems faced by students in speaking?.
The researcher also interviewed some students in third semester in the classroom in the form of individual interview, after that the researcher asked other students to tell their good/bad experiences, and the researcher also made class discussion with the topic about Dating. Dating was chosen because it is the teenagers’ issue and most of them experienced it.
From the preliminary study, the researcher drew the problems found in the speaking teaching and learning. They were:
1) The students are not confident to speak English, because they always worry of making mistakes and their friends will laugh at them.
2) They are shy to speak English due to the lack of vocabulary and fluency.
3) They hesitate to speak English because they think that their English is not good enough.
4) They always think about grammar and grammar, they worry if their speaking is not grammatically correct, so that, they won’t speak English too much.
5) The speaking lecturers just apply presentation and dialogue in the speaking subject; they need to a new speaking strategy that is of interest to them.
In this step, the researcher analyzed the problems found in the preliminary stage and designed a solution solve the problem. It involved activities to be planned such as designing the model of Improvisations technique and lesson plans for teaching speaking, determining the criteria of success, and preparing materials and media.
184.108.40.206The Model of Improvisations Technique
For teaching speaking, researcher developed a model of Improvisations technique.
The researcher designed lesson plan with the purpose of equipping the teacher with a guideline of the teaching and learning activities for the efficacy of the strategy in the teaching and learning activities. In the lesson, the teaching procedure was divided into three stages that consisted of pre-teaching, whilst-teaching, and post- teaching.
220.127.116.11The Criteria of Success
In conducting Classroom Action Research, criteria of success was vital to know whether the implementation of a certain teaching strategy was successfully completed or not. In line with the problems found in the preliminary study, the criteria of success were determined as follows:
- The students’ speaking average scores are improved, indicated by the improving of students’ speaking scores at least 3 based on 1-5 scale scoring or qualified as “GOOD”.
- The students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process, indicated by more than 70% participated in the improvisations.
- The students are highly motivated perform drama improvisations, indicated by the ability of the students to cooperate, ask, respond, and express spontaneously.
18.104.22.168Materials and media
The seat arrangement is very important in the success of improvisations. The stage was arranged in U model, which was placed in the center of classroom. The teacher and the observer were in front of the students. The students were in the left, right, and in front of the teacher and the observer. The stage was right in the center of the classroom. This classroom organization was hoped to maximize the students’ performances, to attract other students’ attention, and to ease the observation.
Materials were made in several of things. The researcher used media such as, whiteboard, board-maker, mp3 recorder, and role-play cards. Whiteboard and board-maker were used to explain speaking situations/topics they probably faced. Mp3 recorder was used to record their voice. Role-play cards were used to guide the students’ performances in doing improvisations. Examples of the role-play card were the Money isn’t Enough, A Stranger in Town, Meeting an Old Friends, etc.
In conducting classroom action research, it was assisted by a collaborator. The researcher became the teacher who taught the students speaking through improvisations and the collaborator became the observer who observed the implementation of improvisation. The collaborator is the English teacher of English department of Widyagama Mahakam Unversity Samarinda. The study was conducted in two cycles. There were 4 meetings for each cycle. In the end of each cycle, the researcher and the observer administered a speaking test.
The researcher did the action of teaching speaking using Improvisation technique. He implemented the teaching speaking using improvisations technique based on the lesson plan made before. He used the teaching material, role-cards for improvisations, and media of teaching. He knew well about the technique and its implementation.
In this stage, researcher collected any data related to criteria of success. The student’s improvised drama was observed using a filed-note and form of performances in drama improvisations. The other students wrote students’ summary and students’ report. The researcher observed the interaction of the students, their language and their body language. The observer (the collaborator) assisted by observing the teacher and students activities using observation checklist for students and observation checklist for teacher.
Reflecting is intended to see the result of the implementation of the strategy comparing to the criteria of success. In this step, the researcher and the observer decided whether the use of the strategy success or not, whether they stops the cycle or back to revise the plan for the following cycle.
The conclusion was drawn by consulting the result of data analysis with the selected criteria. As it was mentioned previously, the criteria of success are; (1) the students’ speaking average scores are improved, indicated by the improving of students’ speaking scores at least 3 based on 1-5 scale scoring or qualified as “GOOD”, (2) the students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process, indicated by more than 70% participated in the improvisations, and (3) the students are highly motivated perform drama improvisations, indicated by the ability of the students to cooperate, ask, respond, and express spontaneously.
Taken and Modified from : Fauzan, Umar. 2009. Unpublished Thesis. Unisma