Lubis (1988:44) defines improvisations is a dramatic hypothetical situation in which two speakers interact without any special preparation. When working with improvisations, the teacher should have a large supply of hypothetical situation based on hand-situations which are simply stated and challenging to the students’ creativity.
Clare (2006) states that role-play involves giving students role cards, instructions and time to prepare. Improvisations are more spontaneous. The teacher does not give details or language phrases to use. Improvisations work best if students are given roles and situations and asked to react immediately. Improvisations can be introduced very briefly with a ‘warm up’. Improvisations encourage students to use whatever language they have available to communicate, develop “thinking on your feet” skills and gain confidence in coping with the unexpected, get practice in instigating communication from nothing, focus on getting the message across rather than on repeating dialogues parrot fashion, use their imagination, imagine themselves using the language in real life situations, and be creative with language.
The students have no much time to prepare before performing improvisations. The time is depending on the level of the students. For beginners to intermediate they have longer time preparation than those who are in advance level. Students perform improvisation based on the role-card given, including the goal to be achieved. Same role-card can be performed by different group of students to see if there are different solutions.
After students perform improvisations several time, they will get used to do it and it will be necessary to set a time limit; this is very important to increase their creativity in speaking based on their plot improvisation management. There are also necessary to discuss any possible solutions or variations. The teacher should concern at the interaction (communication, body language, solution) of the students while they are performing (Via in Rivers, 1987:121). Each language progress such as, grammatical, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency progress and mental progress such as, confidence should be considered to set the topic/situation for the next improvisation performances. These considerations will make sure that the students entering the next level of speaking improvement through improvisations.